This page features a collection of Alex de Vries’, founder of Digiconomist, scientific contributions. Articles may be downloaded via the links below, or by requesting a copy through Researchgate.


De Vries, A. (2023). The growing energy footprint of artificial intelligence. Joule, 7(10), 2191–2194.
De Vries, A. (2023). Cryptocurrencies on the road to sustainability: Ethereum paving the way for Bitcoin. Patterns, 4(1), 100633.
de Vries, A., Gallersdörfer, U., Klaaßen, L., & Stoll, C. (2022). Revisiting Bitcoin’s carbon footprint. Joule, 6(3), 498–502.
Howson, P., & de Vries, A. (2022). Preying on the poor? Opportunities and challenges for tackling the social and environmental threats of cryptocurrencies for vulnerable and low-income communities. Energy Research & Social Science, 84, 102394.
de Vries, A., & Stoll, C. (2021). Bitcoin’s growing e-waste problem. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 175, 105901.
de Vries, A., Gallersdörfer, U., Klaaßen, L., & Stoll, C. (2021). The true costs of digital currencies: Exploring impact beyond energy use. One Earth, 4(6), 786–789.
de Vries, A. (2020). Bitcoin’s energy consumption is underestimated: A market dynamics approach. Energy Research & Social Science, 70, 101721.
de Vries, A. (2021). Bitcoin Boom: What Rising Prices Mean for the Network’s Energy Consumption. Joule.
de Vries, A. (2018). Bitcoin’s Growing Energy Problem. Joule, 2(5), 801–805.
de Vries, A. (2019). Renewable Energy Will Not Solve Bitcoin’s Sustainability Problem. Joule, 3(4), 893–898.
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